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Multimedia Consulting Studio is founded in 2012. The areas of research and development of the company have ranged from the earliest days of the technology applied to the sound systems of production and post-production video, the multimedia CD-Rom for big commercial online portals on the internet. Our FACEBOOK Page is also available. The activities carried out and the proposed solutions have garnered immediate positive feedback from the market, allowing rapid growth of the company and developing the operational structure.

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FASHION

 

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Origin of the term

The term derives from the Latin modus fashion, which means way, rule, rule, time, melody, rhythm, tone, moderate, wise, discretion.

In past centuries, the fashionable clothing was the prerogative of only the affluent classes mainly because of the cost of fabrics and dyes used, which were extracted from the mineral, plant and animal. Before the nineteenth century, the dress was considered so valuable that it was listed among the assets of wills. The low-income classes used to wear only clothes cut crudely and, above all, inexpensive stained with dyes such as gray. To these he added shoes cloth or wood. Not being able to afford to buy new clothes made to measure, these classes wrap often used on clothing.

The term fashion shows for the first time in its current meaning in the Treaty The hackney-coach, that's for fashion, Abbot Augustine Lampugnani, published in 1645.: P
The meaning of fashion

Fashion - also known historically costume - comes in part from the human need related to the survival of cover with fabric, leather or manufactured materials to be worn. In fact, the dress also took specific social functions, able to distinguish different classes and priestly duties, administrative and military.

The women, who were excluded, this does not renounced to dress with extreme care. More related to psychology is the aspect of masking. The clothes can be used to hide the sides of the personality that you do not want to know or, conversely, to show them. Consider, for example, the proverb: "The clothes do not make the Monaco".
Tailors

The manual cutting and tailoring developed quite slowly, especially when, from the fourteenth century onwards, they began to create clothes close to the body. The Garzoni, in his book of all professions in the world published in Venice in 1585, explicitly states that a good tailor should be able to do everything to satisfy every need of its customers. That the tailor was not a good independent craft, but was a servant of the great lords: he lived and worked at the court of a gentleman, he could also choose to "lend" to relatives or friends. The remuneration for the work was around 10% of the cost of the fabric. It was a profession barred to women, and as seamstresses had minor tasks or applied more to the frame and the embroidery. There were no sizes, so each dress was unique, tailored by the customer. The units were variable; Venice were in use Brazzi: from sedation, which corresponded to 63.8 cm, and wool, 67.3 cm.
A toilet of the Queen of France Marie Antoinette

Some artists, such as Giotto and Antonio del Pollaiuolo created models of clothes and textiles. The famous seamstress of the French queen Marie Antoinette, Rose Bertin, while creating sumptuous toilettes for the queen, could not yet be called designer. To give an example a seamstress could not buy directly the fabric, which was sold exclusively by the manufacturer. After the French Revolution the Convention abolished the guilds and the strict rules that were applied and detailed, stating that everyone could dress as he pleased. The decree was created to hatred against the sumptuary laws which had now become a watershed between the dress of the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie, which were banned many luxury items. Since then the tailor was completely free to express his creativity.
Fashion for the few and the fashion for all

In the nineteenth century went more refined tailoring making it easier to wear the dress. Since the nineteenth century we begin to distinguish the first designers who created new styles, new fabrics and new standards in the way of dressing, with the adoption of new women's clothing such as suits invented at the end of the century English Redfern. The designer reversed the relationship between the tailor and customer, which now depended on his ideas and was very happy to wear a dress designed by him and built in his studio. The designers worked only for the elite since the costs for the design and production were very high. This new impetus for reform was mainly carried out by Charles Frederic Worth, English and lived in France, considered the inventor of the Haute Couture and personal tailor the Empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III and his court from 1865.

The Industrial Revolution started in England in the late eighteenth century, created in the field of fashion and weaving machines, which allowed to weave, cut and sew quickly and cheaply. However, the fashion came to earth until the mid-nineteenth century, with the invention of machines to cut the pieces of fabric and the introduction of the Jacquard loom. At first such techniques were applied mainly to military uniforms, with the emergence in France of the department stores, the prices of clothes packed in series dropped significantly.
Corset 1890-1895

The new techniques of chemistry and the invention of steel introduced less expensive materials: the mechanical weaving accelerated the production of cloth, as well as printing of decorations with industrial dyes, busts and petticoats were no longer reinforced with whalebone, but of metal, easily reproducible in series. The crinoline petticoat the dome widespread during the period of Romanticism and equipped with steel wheels, was first worn by women of the people.
Sumptuary laws.

 

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Sumptuary laws are known in Italy since Roman times and represent a valuable document for learning about fashion at all times: it is legislative provisions that limited the luxury fashion for men and women, certain social groups or forced to wear distinctive signs. As early as 215 BC the Lex Oppia sought to limit the richness of women's clothes. Following Julius Caesar himself and then other emperors intervened against the garments of men and women and establish the price. With the advent of Christianity, the documents at our disposal include, for the first few centuries, only sermons of monks or clerics against costumes considered too daring.
Representatives of the States General

In Italy the first sumptuary laws of which we have some news reappear in the thirteenth century, they were impressed hairstyles, decorations, jewelry, trains, fur. The culprits were fined or banned him absolution in church, very serious for the time. From 1500 onwards, the laws became more detailed and thorough and began hitting more middle-class or popular, especially the servants, turning a blind eye on the luxury of the Lords and their courts. Not being able to really curb the luxury sumptuary laws there adapted themselves to allowing things that were forbidden in previous centuries, as some types of fur or multiplication of the jewels on her hands and all over his body. They varied from city to city, with greater hardness or tolerance. In Florence were several sumptuary laws enacted by the Florentine Republic since 1330, to reach the 19 October 1546 with the law "on the ornaments et dresses of men and women" and the reform of December 4, 1562 "above the dress clothes and ornaments women and men of the city of Florence ", issued by Cosimo I de 'Medici against the excesses of luxury. Venice, a city rich and free, was more lenient than others. There were guards delegated to the enforcement of the provisions enacted, which sometimes could enter homes or collect complaints rewarding the complainant. The reactions of women, a favorite target of lawmakers, were sometimes explicit protest, sometimes clever compromises, such as when hiding the train with pins and then dissolve at the first favorable opportunity.

Among the most discriminatory laws were those that affected the Jews, who were forced to wear a pointy hat or a colored mark on his arm, for prostitutes was generally forbidden to show off too flashy, and sometimes had to wear certain colors or distinctive signs. Later also to those who were deemed heretics did wear a penitential habit, usually yellow.

Despite the severity of the sumptuary laws proved to be of limited effectiveness and at the end of the eighteenth century were almost completely disregarded. In 1789 in France, on the eve of the revolution, the bourgeoisie showed up at the opening of the General Assembly in black suit and white tie, clothing that had been imposed on them to humiliate them, to compare the aristocracy was decked with great pomp. The dramatic contrast caused the opposite effect, and the simple clothes of bourgeois morality became a symbol of cleanliness and new ideals, the unjust prohibition also resulted in the implementation, MCS as a first step of the Assembly, abolition - at least for clothing - any class difference.
Diffusion of fashion

Until the invention of newspapers in the early seventeenth century, the fashion spread slowly and then accelerate its development. Before and after that century, war, travel, weddings, letters of lords and even espionage, were the most common systems to meet new shapes. Typical is the example of the achievements of the Roman Empire in Italy who introduced his pants, sleeves, fur. As espionage, ie the propagation of information about illegal methods of processing the original, WE THE PEOPLE it was forbidden by the guilds with severe penalties.

The exploration of the East on the routes of the Silk Road served to raise awareness of unusual motifs that were used in particular for the production of silk fabrics. In the fourteenth century, dragons, griffins, parrots and Chi, which is the cloud stylized Chinese, populated the decoration of textile fabrics Lucca. The journeys of merchants were particularly beneficial for learning new styles. In the Portinari Triptych by Hugo van der Goes the fifteenth century, preserved at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, the banker Tommaso Portinari and his wife are depicted in Flemish dress. In particular, the woman wearing the hennin, fabulous cone hat complete with a long veil, very fashionable in France and Northern Europe, but little used in Italy.
Hennin 1474-1476

In the sixteenth century began to spread pupae, small dolls dressed in the latest fashion and attention to detail. The king of France, Francis I did write to Isabella d'Este, Duchess of Mantua and teacher mode, send a letter to get a pupa [1]. From the sixteenth century in Venice was exposed to Mercerie a doll called "Piavola de Franza" showing the latest models, just copied. The doll was made famous by Carlo Goldoni in his comedy The Rusteghi quotes a saying of course common in Venice that compares to an elegant lady Piavola de Franza. The marriage of Catherine de Medici to Henry II, took her to France shapes and scents Italian appreciated abroad. Meanwhile, the press was making progress, moving from woodcut etching of metal.

The painter Cesare Vecellio has left us a book, dated to the end of the sixteenth century and named after the De et Habiti ancient modern different parts of the world that has had a huge fortune surpassing his fame as an artist. The text, rich engravings and descriptions, speaks not only of the Venetian mode, but also those of other Italian regions, without neglecting foreign fashions, eastern species. Even the engravings on the costume and the books of sketches for tailors, showing the dresses and their models were effective propagators of styles.

Phenomenon contributes to the spread of the birth of fashion journalism, which develops in the second half of the seventeenth century. Was founded in 1672 in France, the Mercure Galant, originally a literary newsletter, newspaper gossip and fashion. At the Mercure Galant was followed, especially in the eighteenth century, a number of other newspapers, which usually copied without regard to French models, which were at the forefront during the century throughout Europe. A typical MCS WE THE PEOPLE case is the Italian Journal of New mode of France and England, and the Corriere delle Dame, who continued its publication, even in the nineteenth century. It was not until the next century, after the abolition of laws, tariffs, trade barriers, because the fashion press to spread freely throughout the world.
History of fashion
Ancient period
European fashion before Christ

In the Mediterranean, populations such as the Etruscans, Greeks, Romans dressed with substantially the same leaders, albeit with some variations. He was wearing a robe that varied in length depending on the genre - call Greece and Rome chiton tunic, specifically was a sort of rectangle sleeveless stopped on the shoulders and buckles at the waist by a belt. In Archaic Greek women also wore the tunic folded at the top, creating a long cape to the waist. The variety of clothes was given not so much cut, but the ability to create drapes, pleats and puffs. To do this, it was used equipment, also known by other ancient peoples, which served to put the dress form. The use of one or more belts, sometimes arranged diagonally, had the same purpose. Lovers of fitness and sport, the Greeks chose clothes that forced the body and allow ease of movement. Above the dress you wore a cloak or long and heavy. The cloaks were the most commonly used Greek chlamys and short rectangular, which for its size needed to ride, and the himation, WE MCS THE PEOPLE bigger and worn by both sexes, wrapped around the body so as to leave the right shoulder discovery.

The Etruscans wore the mantle as tebenna, oval which is believed to come from the Roman toga. Usually fastened with a brooch on the shoulder, across the last period was wrapped around the body leaving a free arm. In general, the clothes Etruscans were characterized by very bright colors.
Ancient Rome
Toga of a Roman emperor

At the time of the first kings, the Romans wore tunics and wide cloaks probably of Etruscan origin. As for the man, the dress used in the republican and imperial first, then, was the toga, a huge oval coat in wool or linen, wrapped around the body to form dense vertical folds which were also used as pockets. This coat gave the figure looks manly and statuary that was suited to the city of the mighty Rome, meaning that no one who lived there, but who had received citizenship as an honorary title. The toga knew stylistic evolution from the republic to empire. He used various kinds, from the senatorial bordered by a strip of purple, white worn by those who competed for political office (hence the word candidate) in the dark for those in mourning. In the last period of the empire gown was so heavy embroidery and decorations to be abandoned in favor of more free and loose cloaks. The gains in Europe and Asia greatly influenced the Roman fashion: they were introduced pants and sleeves of oriental origin. In the late empire tight sleeves were applied to the tunic, and dalmatic garment probably coming from Dalmatia, was the rather wide.

The Roman women did not have the freedom of man, so much so that it could only leave the house accompanied and covered with a cloak also brought on the head. The first statues that depict exalt the virtues of "pudicitia". The matron wearing different clothes over the other: the tunica intima, the tunica, stole, or a garment without sleeves stop on the shoulders of fibulae. In the period of the women's hairstyles became very elaborate: fashions were launched by the wives of emperors who were depicted on the favorite hairstyle that repeated copy in marble busts, was imitated by others. The matron had a slave specifically empowered the ornatrix that every morning performed curly, crowns, braids. After Nero's hairstyles became towering. Frequent were the wigs: the most sought after were those blondes with hair made of German adolescents, while the black ones were used the hair of oriental women.
The Byzantines
The mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale depicting Justinian and his retinue

The Byzantine fashion, clearly observable in many mosaics of Ravenna, in particular those in the apse of the Basilica of San Vitale, spread throughout Europe, especially since the Emperor Constantine in 330 AD, moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium, later renamed Constantinople.

Important cultural center, Constantinople became a point of reference for clothing, which was enriched with oriental influences. Of particular importance was the introduction of silk cocoons of silkworms, according to the legend recounted by the historian Procopius, were brought from China to Europe in stick cable two monks. In Constantinople, the silk production was strictly controlled by imperial edicts that limited its use to the ruling classes. The use of the purple dye made from a mollusk expensive, was reserved for the court.
Theodora and her ladies

As the shapes of the clothes fashion was but a continuation of the late Roman period. The men used the tunic with sleeves, worn over another inner tunic, breeches and cloak. The latter, by the Romans copied the Greek fashion, and having risen considerably, is represented by a diamond-shaped insert, the tablion, considered a symbol of power and dignity. In the mosaic in San Vitale Emperor Justinian wears one in purple and gold cloth, while the men of the following have a white cloak with tablion purple.

Rich was also the women's clothing: the mosaic mentioned, against Justinian, the Empress Theodora also wearing tunic and cloak embroidered with the Three Kings in procession. Theodora is distinguished by the splendor of her jewels: a large tiara with pearls and gems, long earrings and a cape which is also set with precious stones. The ladies who joined the Dalmatian wearing cloaks and shorter. The dalmatic was often decorated with vertical stripes, the mosaics of the Basilica of St. Apollinaris Nuovo, this garment for women only the rim cut bias. Contrast, men wear the tunic the pallium, cloak of Greek origin.
Medieval

 

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After the final affirmation of Christianity was proclaimed the state religion in 381 AD, there were no substantial changes in fashion for several centuries, clothing and fees were set to those of the late Roman period. One of the causes was the wave of economic depression across Europe up to one thousand. The sense of the sacred, very strong in the medieval period, and the condemnation of the flesh resulting therefrom, overshadowed the human being as an individual nature. No coincidence that the contemporary iconography reflects mainly the life of Christ and the saints. The Church recommended maximum modesty in dress, Saint Jerome in his writings railed against the excesses of women, while Tertullian called women "the devil's gateway." Also as far as the man lit a long diatribe if he was or not cut their hair (natural gift of the Lord) on the chin and head. Perhaps for these reasons, for a long time did not feel the need for a clear distinction vestiaria between males and females.

The development of the city, which began as early as one thousand, had led to the rise of towns that slowly took over the estates. Municipalities completely changed the face of Italian society, because the organization of city life was based on work and commerce, business in the hands of the bourgeoisie.

The clothes were made up as follows: on bare skin is brought directly, though not always, shirt, pants and sometimes called the Lombards femoralia. We then overlapped two dresses, a tunic with tight sleeves and a long-sleeved wider, which could also be replaced by a cloak. The men continued to use his pants. The freezing weather of the houses where there was still the fire and there were no glass windows, caused the spread of fur, luxury item used as lining.

Abysmal was the difference of the clothing of the lower classes than noble. While the poor often had no shoes or a coat to cover themselves, the gentlemen wore silk embroidered in gold and purple shoes. It was not only an exhibition of status at that time it was believed that the kings and emperors were invested directly by God, not by chance that one of the objects was presented during the coronation was the golden globe surmounted by the cross , symbol of power blessed by heaven. We provide two examples of royal costumes. In Life Mathildis written and illustrated by Donizone, Countess of Canossa in the throne wearing a tunic, a cloak with wide sleeves funnel, a cloak, a veil and a high pointed hat. However, the rarest and most complete example of the kit, which still exists and stored at Kunsthistoriche Museum in Vienna, is designed to Roger II of Sicily in 1133, as attested by the inscription in Arabic letters that surrounds the edge of the mantle. Used to crown the emperors, these garments are made up of two coats, one blue and one white, socks, gloves, belts, and a beautiful mantle of scarlet silk embroidered with gold and pearls with two lions that break down two camels. The symbol is probably the victory of the Christian faith of the Muslims.
The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries

This period is also called Gothic name given to the men of the Renaissance meant barbaric as works of art did not follow the golden rules of perspective and nature was represented only in a very stylized. In fact, the Church, in spite of the internal crises, he still had a strong influence on daily life, and the man was seen exclusively as a creature that everything depended on the power of God. The towns prospered: born the first corporations, which imposed strict rules with statutes. The activities and most important businesses in Italy were based on refining tissue, often from abroad, or the texture of precious cloths. In Florence, the powerful art of Calimala, wool imported from England and sold it at high prices. Lucca and Venice were at the center of a high-quality textile and tailoring activities. The decorations were often taken from Oriental sources, since the trade was pushed up in India and China along the famous Silk Road, bringing to Europe new styles and images.

Even the processing of fur, used as linings and now become popular, was subject to strict regulations. The male and female fashion, yet with a certain rigidity in the thirteenth century, began a process of increasing narrowing of the clothes. What's new in this century was the introduction of the buttons, which allowed to adhere garments and sleeves to the body. The value of the dress was naively determined by the amount of cloth that was worn; born this way - in women's fashion - the first trains, which compensarono tissue loss on the bust. The train was particularly opposed by sumptuary laws and the Church, so much so that at this time the Cardinal Malebranca, papal legate in Bologna, forbade the women to wear it, hitting the disobedient to the failure absolution in the confessional, serious punishment for those times . The considerable lengthening that fashion gave the human body has been likened by some to the verticality of Gothic churches. The stuff, as it was called the set of clothes, consisted of a shirt, a dress, surcoats with or without sleeves, and cloaks. For the man his pants were always a must. A new garment men of military origin was instead the doublet, a short jacket brought directly on the shirt. On their heads they wore a white cap and a cloak with hood for man and a veil for the woman, to which the Church required it to hide the hair.

At the end of the century were invented glasses, probably the work of a small Venetian glassmaker. The first document was figurative but in the middle of the next century: in Treviso, in the Chapter Hall of St. Nicholas, Tommaso da Modena has left us a fresco of the cardinal Hugh de Provence equipped with this important accessory.

From the fourteenth century onwards, there was a real revolution vestiaria: for the first time in centuries men's clothes diverged markedly from those of women: the woman continued to bring clothes tight but always made longer by train, while towards the end of the century great scandal caused the introduction of the neckline, stigmatized by Dante. The man wore clothes that showed very short legs completely. Even his pants narrowed becoming real stockings ending in a long point, usually connected to the doublet and equipped with a sole that allow to exclude footwear. For the first time in the history of men's fashion is highlighted a distinction between the above and the one below of the dress, which over the centuries have led to the formation of a jacket and trousers. The clothes were often divided vertically into two colors, the latter is often attributed to a political symbolism of belonging to factions or aristocratic courts. In the fourteenth century the decorations increased and were mainly concentrated on the sleeves which were embroidered crests of the most prominent families. The affrappature edges were cut in the form of leaf decorating the surcoat. On the head, in addition to the cap, the cap was worn rolled up like a turban. The houses not heated and the windows are not always closed by glass (expensive at the time) forced people to use a lot of coat: the most common were the Pellanda and giornea, the first decorated with long sleeves, the latter equipped with two openings to spend his arms.
The fifteenth century

This and the subsequent period they were called Renaissance, because the art had been freed from the shackles of the Gothic period. The rebirth of humanism, the discovery of Greek and Latin classics, and the studio that made the Roman ruins passionate artists of the period, led to a rediscovery of the centrality of man compared to the universe. For the first time riaffrontò the study of proportions, aided by the first dissections, however, forbidden by the Church. One of the first drawings that represents the perfect proportions of the human body is the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci in which the figure is inscribed in a square and a circle, the two main geometric shapes closer to perfection.

The fashion of the period was dictated by the courts stately as the Medici in Florence, the Montefeltro in Urbino, the Sforza in Milan. The courts have often tended to emphasize the lineage with its own colors or written, those companies in which they indicated feelings or actions. The same colors were extended to the servants, and they went creating the first livery. From the fifteenth century until the first half of the sixteenth century, men and women wore clothes that emphasized forms without altering them. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, however, the female dress, still influenced by the Gothic style, had long trains and hanging sleeves. To advance of the century with the train disappeared, but there were other news: for the first time the skirt was detached from the bodice, unfolding with slight curls. The sleeves were also equipped with long slits from which came the white puffy shirt. The use of laces allow the ability to change sleeves on the same dress, custodendole in a chest. The sleeves were indeed elegant embellished with gems and gold tips, and treated with the care of real jewels. But men continued to show their legs and wore clothes that rigonfiavano the chest. For the latter, doublet, once considered undergarment was shortened and put openly on display, along with calzebraghe aderentissime that wrapped the buttocks. The performance of the male body was now complete, and to cover the genitalia was invented codpiece, a kind of piece of fabric, which was also used as a pocket. This kind of fashion was followed by young people, while the people who had a public office or a specific profession, such as doctors and teachers, continued to wear loose clothing and long.
Modern period
The sixteenth century

During the sixteenth century the vicissitudes of Italian political life, fought between France and Spain, and the fall of the peninsula under the Spanish flu, ended up influencing fashion that can be divided into two stages, with completely different styles. In the first half of the influence of the Renaissance again proposed the triumph of the body, the clothes began to widen. Was no longer in fashion gothic type rangy, but the woman round like the Venus of Titian. Venice was especially the Italian city where the female costume is expressed with greater freedom plunging necklines and elements drawn from clothing Eastern Europe, as the first earrings, as one reporter shocked pierced ears "like a blackberry" [2] . Some MCS quirks of women's clothing struck his contemporaries: for example, the use of lead under her skirt, long pants swollen knee, fashion probably imported from max's Lucrezia Borgia. The blinds are also dyed her hair red tiziano. The man tried to accentuate his manhood: muscular, with broad shoulders and a thick beard, also showed off his sexual attributes, wearing a sort of bulging crotch panty clearly phallic.





 

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